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April 2016

Volume 2 Issue 1

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Review Article
Past, Present and Future Challenges To Science and Sustainability At EPA: A Review

Alan D. Hecht*

This paper reviews critical actions taken by EPA since the 1992 Rio Earth Summit to overcome its single media approach to environmental protection and advance the concept and practice of sustainability. Sustainability is defined as both a goal and a process that link economic growth, social well-being and environmental protection. Progress to the goal of sustainability has been slow since 1992 and more expedient action is needed today to address the growing pressures of climate change, urban population growth and social disparities, resource depletion, and increases in extreme weather events.

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Original Article
Effects of Mixed-Grazing on Greenhouse Gas Fluxes During the Growing Season in Desert Steppe

Dan Ding, Andreas Wilkes, Xiaojuan Liu, Qing Chen, Chengjie Wang*

We studied the effects of different grazing species (cattle grazing (CG), sheep grazing (SG) and mixed-grazing of cattle and sheep (MG)) on fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) during the growing season in a desert steppe of Inner Mongolia, China. The static chamber method was used to measure fluxes of CO2 and CH4 from June to October, 2013. Results indicate that the grazed desert steppe was a net source of soil atmospheric CO2 exchange and a net sink of soil atmospheric CH4 exchange during the growing season. Grazing species did not alter the CO2 or CH4 flux direction.

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Original Paper
Fungal Contamination of Sandpits from Recreational Parks and Schools: A Potential Risk for Human Health

C. Viegas*, J. Brandão, R. Sabino, M. Meneses, C. Veríssimo

Sandpits used by children are frequently visited by wild life which constitutes a source of fungal pathogens and allergenic fungi. This study aimed to take an unannounced snapshot of the urban levels of fungal contaminants in sands, using for this purpose two public recreational parks, three elementary schools and two kindergartens. All samples were from Lisbon and neighboring municipalities and were tested for fungi of clinical interest.

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